Database access when running H2

Configuring the username and password

The database (a file called is created when the node first starts up. By default, it has an administrator user sa and a blank password. The node requires the user with administrator permissions in order to creates tables upon the first startup or after deploying new CorDapps with their own tables. The database password is required only when the H2 database is exposed on non-localhost address (which is disabled by default).

This username and password can be changed in node configuration:

 dataSourceProperties = {
    dataSource.user = [USER]
    dataSource.password = [PASSWORD]

Note that changing the user/password for the existing node in node.conf will not update them in the H2 database. You need to log into the database first to create a new user or change a user’s password.

Connecting via a socket on a running node

Configuring the port

Nodes backed by an H2 database will not expose this database by default. To configure the node to expose its internal database over a socket which can be browsed using any tool that can use JDBC drivers, you must specify the full network address (interface and port) using the h2Settings syntax in the node configuration.

The configuration below will restrict the H2 service to run on localhost:

h2Settings {
    address: "localhost:12345"

If you want H2 to auto-select a port (mimicking the old h2Port behaviour), you can use:

h2Settings {
    address: "localhost:0"

If remote access is required, the address can be changed to to listen on all interfaces. A password must be set for the database user before doing so.

h2Settings {
    address: ""
dataSourceProperties {
    dataSource.password : "strongpassword"


The previous h2Port syntax is now deprecated. h2Port will continue to work but the database will only be accessible on localhost.

Connecting to the database

The JDBC URL is printed during node startup to the log and will typically look like this:


Any database browsing tool that supports JDBC can be used.

Connecting using the H2 Console

  • Download the last stable h2 platform-independent zip, unzip the zip, and navigate in a terminal window to the unzipped folder
  • Change directories to the bin folder: cd h2/bin
  • Run the following command to open the h2 web console in a web browser tab:
    • Unix: sh
    • Windows: h2.bat
  • Paste the node’s JDBC URL into the JDBC URL field and click Connect, using the default username (sa) and no password (unless configured otherwise)

You will be presented with a web interface that shows the contents of your node’s storage and vault, and provides an interface for you to query them using SQL.

Connecting directly to the node’s file

You can also use the H2 Console to connect directly to the node’s file. Ensure the node is off before doing so, as access to the database file requires exclusive access. If the node is still running, the H2 Console will return the following error: Database may be already in use: null. Possible solutions: close all other connection(s); use the server mode [90020-196].